Quality Assurance (QA) is one of the 10 action lines in the Bologna Process. It was mentioned since 1999 and repeated many times since.
The national quality assurance systems vary in each of the 47 countries member of the Bologna Process: There is no European QA, but the European Standard Guideline (ESG) provide a framework for good practice shared by the whole European higher education area (EHEA). The accreditation bodies are in charge of QA but how to ensure that they are careful: QA must be internal and external.
PHE faces specific issues when it comes to QA and accreditation. QA was developed later than in academic education as it came mainly from external QA, internal QA was much less developed. They have different requirement than academic universities, when it comes to practice, work placements etc. EURASHE feels more PHE features should be added in the ESG and started it PHExcel Project.