There are at the moment two European Qualifications Frameworks, the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (FQ-EHEA) and the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF-LLL). The FQ-EHEA was set up in 2005, with the agreement of the ministers of 47 countries. It divides higher education into three cycles, intending to facilitate international transparency, recognition and mobility. The EQF-LLL was created by European institutions for 33 countries. It covers the whole formal education divided in 8 levels. its purpose is very similar to the one of the FQ-EHEA: improve transparency, comparability and portability of citizen’s qualifications to enhance international and national mobility.
They are based on learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skill and competences, which are described differently in the two frameworks. The two pay much attention to quality assurance. Those similarities and difference create a complex picture at national level.
It leads to questions about the quality frameworks, recognition and sectoral qualifications.
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