Access to education in developing countries has improved drastically over the past decade. More recently, development goals have shifted to focus also on the quality of education. In pursuit of both access and quality, thousands of innovative education programs have emerged aiming to serve the poor. But there are significant gaps in our understanding of the benefits of such programs.This gap is due in part to the lack of systematic and easy-to-access information about programs around the world—both big and small. Practical lessons about successful and unsuccessful experiences are even harder to find, and as a result we are left with a world full of innovative models, but without an understanding of how they are distributed, whether they work, and how those that do can be improved, replicated, and scaled up to serve more of the world’s poor. If properly harnessed, innovations in education have the potential to significantly increase access to quality education for the poor. Governments, non-governmental organizations, and social enterprises are among those pioneering new interventions, policies, and financing mechanisms that specifically target the most vulnerable. If these innovations are systematically mapped, their approaches and challenges understood, and their potential evaluated, their collective impact could improve the education and livelihoods of millions of the world’s poor. This can only happen through the concerted effort of a global network of implementers, funders, researchers, and policymakers—but it can happen.